JUVENILE COURTS AND JUVENILE JUSTICE: THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

SUBHAM BANERJEE & DEBLINA BANERJEE

ABSTRACT

This article deals with a detailed analysis on Juvenile courts and Juvenile justice. The article in the beginning gives a brief description about Juvenile justice and then deals with its historical aspect as well. Then it focuses on Juvenile Delinquency following with the Juvenile Justice act 2015 and its salient features. The article discusses Juvenile Justice in reference to Constitution of India. Furthermore it upholds the current state of Juvenile Justice in India followed by description of juvenile courts, who can be trialed in juvenile courts and the various types of juvenile courts present. The article also deals with the doctrine of “Doli Incapax”, several penal provisions related to the topic and it also highlights the various similarities and differences of Juvenile Justice and Juvenile Courts. Next comes several case laws and lastly the conclusion. The main focus of this article is to enrich the knowledge of the readers regarding the topic in details. The article mainly highlights the detailed study of Juvenile courts and Juvenile Justice and the various similarities and differences it shares. This article has been written by thoroughly going to several online and offline references and detailed analysis of several other research papers, books and journals.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. INTRODUCTION

  2. HISTORY OF      JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN INDIA

  3. JUVENILE      DELIQUENCY

  4. JUVENILE      JUSTICE ACT,2015

  5. JUVENILE      JUSTICE IN REFERRENCE TO CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

  6. PRESENT      STATE OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN INDIA

  7. JUVENILE      COURTS

  8. WHO CAN BE      TRIALED IN JUVENILE COURTS?

  9. TYPES OF      CASES HEARD IN JUVENILE COURTS

  10. WHAT IS      THE DOCTRINE OF 'DOLI INCAPAX'

  11. PENAL      PROVISIONS AND RELATED JUDGEMENT

  12. SIMILARITIES      AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN JUVENILE JUSTICE AND JUVENILE COURTS.

  13. CASE LAWS

  14. CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION

The Latin motto ‘Nil Novi Spectrum' is a good fit for India's juvenile justice system because it emphasizes that nothing is new on this planet. In the last few years, the world has come across several crimes that are being committed by young children. The main intent behind these thoughts are diversified. This tendency of committing crime is mainly seen between teenagers (specially children 15-16 years) and the reasons for such can be psychological causes, financial stress, differently raising, a sense of male dominance and several others. Since the commission of crime are at extremely young age there’s a thought that small punishments can teach them good lessons and they will learn from there mistakes and hopefully turn out to be better persons in the near future.

Past few decades have witnessed several horrific crimes that are committed by children specially below 16 years and children below 7 are manipulated to commit crimes. The greatest example of juvenile crimes is the Nirbhaya gang rape case of December, 2012. This particular incident has raised several debates cause on of the accused was just 6 months short from attaining the adult age (18). The presence of a juvenile in such a horrendous crime forced the Indian Legislation to take a decision and introduce the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection), 2015.

HISTORY OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN INDIA

[1]Prior to 19thcentury, children below 7 years of age were tried as young adults and were sent to jails. As a result of such step taken, they would learn more about crimes rather than reforming. As a consequence, to that US in 1899 was the first to create a juvenile court in Chicago and were of the thoughts that minors are not mature as adults and they can be moulded into good human beings.

Further on the year 1985, the United Nations standard minimum rule for administration of juvenile justice stated the definition of a juvenile is a young person who is subject to the respective legal system and is charged with any crime. It also states that the age of criminal responsibility of a juvenile must be determined on the basis of the child's mental, emotional, and intellectual integrity, and that the juvenile must be kept separate from adults.

Then, beginning in the 1990s, numerous countries introduced the juvenile justice system. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted in 1989, giving every child four sets of civil, political, cultural, social, and economic rights. Then there was the criticism of children's court, which stated that a juvenile's trial is conducted without the presence of a lawyer, and that the juvenile is unaware of their offence. In 1996, The Supreme Court concluded in the case of Kent v. United States in 1996 that a juvenile has the right to know about his or her crime and to receive appropriate counsel. The Supreme Court of the twentieth century then added greater procedural formality to the juvenile court system.

In present period, a development for the extraordinary treatment of juvenile offenders has begun all through the world including many created nations like U.K., U.S.A. This development has been begun around the eighteenth century. Before this, juvenile wrongdoers were treated as same as other criminal guilty parties. Furthermore, for a similar explanation, General assembly of United Nations has received a Convention on the Privileges of Youngster on twentieth November 1989. This show tries to ensure the wellbeing of juveniles. The Convention expresses that to ensure the social – reintegration of juvenile , there will be no legal continuing and court preliminaries against them. The Convention drives the Indian Enactment to cancel the Juvenile Justice Act, 1986 and to make another law. Consequently, Indian Enactment thought of another demonstration which was called as "The Juvenile justice (Care and protection of children) Act, 2000.

The Juvenile justice, 1986 which canceled the previous Children Act, 1960, pointed toward offering impact to the rules contained in the Standard Least Guidelines for the Organization of Juvenile justice received by the U.N. nations in November 1985. The previously mentioned Act comprised of 63 Areas, 7 Parts and is reached out to entire India hope to the Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The main role of the Demonstration was to give care and security, treatment, improvement and recovery of the dismissed juvenile delinquent. The principle goals of the Demonstration were:

● The demonstration essentially set down uniform structure for the juvenile justice in country so that it secures the privilege and interest of juvenile.

● It discusses the apparatus and infra – structure for the consideration, insurance treatment, improvement and recovery of the juvenile wrongdoers.

● It set out the essential arrangements for the legitimate and reasonable organization of criminal Justice if there should be an occurrence of horrifying wrongdoing done by juvenile guilty parties.

Juvenile Delinquency

[2]Delinquency is an action, omission, or moral behavior of juvenile which isn't allowed in the general public , and when a child perform such conduct then he is viewed as delinquent. The word misconduct has its starting point from Latin word implies that to leave or to forsake. It implies kids who are ignored by the general public or by their folks for which they include in destructive and criminal operations. At the point when a child does any wrongdoing then it falls under the category of juvenile delinquency.

The juvenile delinquency is a social problem which is by and large characterized as a youngster attempting or claiming to grow up and behave like a grown-up. There are numerous translations of the term Delinquent yet the by Clyde. B. Yedder it was most distinct he said that Juvenile misconduct alludes to against - social acts of children or of young people under age.

Demonstrations of misconduct by an adolescent might be fleeing from home, utilizing indecent dialects, submitting a few offenses, accomplishing illicit work, taking adjusted to drugs and so on other unsocial behavior.

Because of this adolescent wrongdoing the idea of Juvenile Justice came and as of late it turned into a significant piece of criminal science. The primary point of Juvenile Delinquency is to safe gatekeeper the right of the kids and give them give it a second thought and assurance likewise to treat ignored and delinquent kid and allow them an opportunity to be helpful resident of the general public. In the new years the adolescent misconduct is expanding, as per the evaluation agency in 2008 there were 1,653,000 cases in United States which was 23.6 % more than the instances of 1990.

So, to diminish Juvenile Delinquency each nation have their own Juvenile Justice act yet every one of these demonstrations depend on three models:

● The due procedural model

● The social welfare models

● The participatory process models

JUVENILE JUSTICE ACT, 2015.

[3]The Juvenile Justice Act of 2015 supplanted the Juvenile Justice Act of 2000 on the grounds that there existed a requirement for a more powerful and viable Justice framework that focused in on impediment just as reformative methodologies. The methodology towards Juveniles ought to be not quite the same as that of grown-ups, there were conflicts made in the Parliament that the Juveniles ought to be given more space for change or reconstruction or improvement and that is just conceivable when there's an exceptional Justice framework. Subsequently, the new demonstration for example the Juvenile Justice (care and protection of children) Act, 2015 concentrated on a Juvenile agreeable methodology of arbitration and disposition of matters.

Salient Features of the Act are as follows: -

1) Section 2 (12) of the Juvenile Justice (care and protection of children) Act, 2015 gives the meaning of the Juvenile, which means accordingly that a child is an individual who hasn't finished the age of 18 for example he/she is under 18. The Act has given an arrangement in regards to the term 'juvenile' in particular "child needing care and security" and Section 2 (13) of the Juvenile justice (care and protection of children) Act, 2015 that discussions about "child in conflict with law".

2) There was a reasonable qualification made in regards to the aspects of offenses, which means along these lines that classifications were made naming the offenses as intolerable, genuine and insignificant. There have been particulars made with respect to the Juveniles who are between the age of 16-18, on the off chance that any sort of wrongdoing is perpetrated by them, after due examination of their intellectual ability, they can be attempted as a grown-up.

3) Presentation of Juvenile courts, which means consequently that extraordinary courts were to be set up that will be attempting the Juvenile offenses just, similar to that of the NDPS courts, courts managing POCSO, and so on

4) With the happening to the 2015 Act, the extent of the meaning of 'Juvenile needing care and protection' was upgraded to another level by thinking about the accompanying focuses from the many referenced in Section 2 (14) of the Juvenile Justice (care and protection of children) Act, 2015:

● Those whose gatekeepers or guardians are/were ill suited or uninterested in dealing with the juvenile.

● The individuals who are/were discovered performing works that are in negation to the work laws.

● Ones who have the unavoidable danger of marriage under the watchful eye of achieving the predefined legitimate age.

● The significance of reception has additionally been indicated in the Act through which the rights a received juvenile stands perceived.

In this way, the officials while drafting the Juvenile Act, 2015 has consider every one of the essential arrangements set somewhere near the Constitution so that juvenile privileges are secured in every one of the potential ways.

This is for the very explanation that Section IV of the Act sets out the arrangements for improvement of the juveniles and has focused in on the Transformation and Restoration of Juveniles in every one of the potential conditions.

JUVENILE JUSTICE IN REFERRENCE TO CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

[4]The Constitution of India is consider as the central law of India. Constitution gives rights and obligations of residents. It additionally gives arrangement to the working of the public authority hardware. Constitution Partially III has given Key Rights to its residents in similar way in its Part IV it has given Mandate Standards of State Strategies (DPSP) which goes about as broad rules in outlining government approaches. Constitution has given some essential rights and arrangements particularly for the government assistance of juveniles. Like: –

● Right to free and mandatory rudimentary instruction for every one of the youngsters younger than 6 to 14 years. (Article 21A)

● Right to be shielded from any dangerous work younger than fourteen age. (Article 24)

● Right to be shielded from being mishandled in any structure by a grown-up. (Article 39(e)).

● Right to be shielded from illegal exploitation and constrained reinforced work framework. (Article 39)

● Right to be furnished with acceptable sustenance and appropriate way of life. (Article 47)

Article 15(3) of the Constitution of India gives extraordinary forces to State to make any exceptional laws for the upliftment and the improvement of juveniles and women.

PRESENT STATE OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN INDIA

Like different nations, India had likewise made lawful arrangements that particularly and explicitly manages the rights and assurance of Juvenile guilty parties which tries to handle the issue of Juvenile misconduct. The Juvenile Justice system in India is made based on three fundamental suspicions: -

● Young children ought not be attempted in courts, rather they ought to be corrected in the very most ideal manners,

● they ought not be punished by the courts, however they ought to get an opportunity to change

● preliminary for child in conflict with law ought to be founded on non-punitive treatment through the networks dependent on the social control organizations for example:- Observation Homes and Special Homes.

JUVENILE COURTS

Each state has special courts—ordinarily called juvenile courts—to manage minors who have been blamed for disregarding a criminal resolution. The procedures are affable rather than criminal. Along these lines, rather than being officially accused of a wrongdoing, juvenile convicts are blamed for commission of a delinquent act

An juvenile case typically begins when an examiner or post trial agent documents a common appeal, accusing the Juvenile of disregarding a criminal rule and asking that the court discover that the Juvenile is late. On the off chance that the charges are demonstrated and a misconduct assurance is made, the juvenile convict goes under the courts expansive forces. By then, the juvenile court has the position to do what it considers to be to the greatest advantage of the juvenile

Regularly, the juvenile court holds legitimate authority over the minor for a set timeframe—until the juvenile turns into a grown-up, or now and then significantly more.

WHO CAN BE TRIALED IN JUVENILE COURTS?

To be qualified for juvenile court, a youngster should be a considered a "Juvenile" under state law. In many states, the greatest age for juvenile court is 17. States likewise drawn lower age lines for juvenile court qualification. Most states consider juveniles younger than seven to be unequipped for deciding the contrast among good and bad, or framing a "guilty mind." In this way, children younger than seven are generally pardoned from obligation regarding acts they submit. (All things being equal, guardians may need to pay remuneration to anybody deceived by the demonstrations of a small child. At times, the court will discover a parent unsuitable to really focus on a juvenile who has perpetrated bad behavior and will put the kid with family members or temporary parents.)

Most states see children 14 and more established as fit for shaping criminal purpose, so most of cases including juveniles from 14 to 17 years old are arbitrated in juvenile court. In specific conditions, an Juvenile can be attempted in grown-up criminal court.

Regardless of whether children between the age "floor" (once more, frequently seven) and 14 can frame a blameworthy psyche can be surrendered to the adjudicator. In the event that the appointed authority feels that the kid was fit for framing criminal goal, the kid will be shipped off juvenile court.

TYPES OF CASES HEARD IN JUVENILE COURTS

Not all cases heard in Juvenile court are wrongdoing cases (those including the commission of a wrongdoing). There are two different kinds of cases: reliance cases and status offenses. Various strategies commonly apply to each of the three sorts of juvenile legal disputes.

Juvenile misconduct cases- These cases include minors who have supposedly carried out violations—implying that if the wrongdoing had been perpetrated by a grown-up, the matter would have been attempted in normal criminal court. In any case, the techniques in juvenile court vary altogether from those in grown-up criminal court.

Juvenile reliance cases- Cases including minors who are manhandled or dismissed by their folks or watchmen—called "Juvenile reliance" cases—are additionally heard in Juvenile court. In an Juvenile reliance case, the adjudicator will eventually choose whether a minor ought to be taken out from a dangerous home climate.

Cases including status offenses- A status offense is an infringement that applies just to minors. Models incorporate delinquency (skipping school), curfew violation, and, sometimes, underage drinking.

WHAT IS THE DOCTRINE OF 'DOLI INCAPAX'

[5]One among the significant principles of Criminal Jurisprudence is the teaching of 'Doli Incapax', which articulates the criminal risk of the Juvenile. At the point when this regulation is applied and deciphered concerning the Indian Laws, the outcome it gives is that no Juvenile under or of the age of 7 years should be prosecuted for the commission of the crime.

The doctrine of 'Doli Incapax' signifies the ineptitude of carrying out a crime. It discovers its premise on article 40 (3) (a) of the United Nations Convention on Rights of Child, that expresses that each nation should specify the base age for the youngsters who ought to be excluded from any sort of criminal responsibility in view of their failure to interpret the nature and results of the demonstration.

For Juveniles falling younger than 8 to 14 years, the arraignment has the responsibility to demonstrate the offense of the concerned youngster.

The main aims to this doctrine can be explained in the accompanying focuses:

A child should be protected from the gravity of punishment caused upon him to his demonstration. A reformative methodology ought to be embraced to cause the child to overcome his paranoia.

A child that has a place with the age gathering of under 7 years, doesn't have the intellectual ability to dissect the outcomes of his demonstrations, he/she may do not have the information just as the goal to carry out a wrongdoing and simple 'actus reus' can't be a ground for indictment except if went with 'mens rea'.

PENAL PROVISIONS AND RELATED JUDGEMENT:

Section 82 and 83 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 discussions explicitly about the exclusion from arraignment of the Juveniles.

The Supreme Court on account of Kakoo V. State of Himachal Pradesh reduced the punishment of a 13-year-old kid who had assaulted a 2-year-old young lady. The court thought about sec. 83 and 84 of the IPC that Juveniles can't be treated as that of the grown-ups. Accordingly, it is a very much settled law that while managing the Juveniles the court ought to think about reformative and helpful methodologies.

But in the case, on account of Heeralal V. State of Bihar, a child threatened an adult that he'll chop him into pieces and consequently the child stabbed the person to death. He was condemned by the preliminary court with a thinking that the youngster was sufficiently adult to comprehend the consequences of his demonstration. The Supreme Court also dismissed the petition.

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN JUVENILE JUSTICE AND JUVENILE COURTS.

[6]Juvenile Justice comprise of laws pertinent to minor children who have committed some crime. Most of states have set as long as 18 years as a minor. The law for the most part gives an age constraint to keep minor discipline in the event that they have been engaged with any demonstration which is denied and is under IPC or CrPC or an unlawful offense. These special laws and arrangements are intended to defend when guardians or gatekeepers are not engaged with a specific demonstration.

It has been beating where actual torment isn't rehearsed in certain pieces of the world. The association of grown-ups is a wrongdoing and it is an infringement of laws. It is implied uniquely for a minor.

The Justice framework assumes a significant part to cause blamed to comprehend the bad behavior and its outcomes. The objective is to restore the denounced. There are approaches to keep them out of prison and give them guiding meetings, treatment by the approved individuals. The blamed is put under delinquent demonstrations and not criminal demonstrations. Rather than the jury preliminary, the adjudicators hear the case and make a decision.

Juvenile law goes under state government and most states established an arranged law that is Juvenile code. Juvenile Justice (care and protection) act 2015 was passed by the Parliament of India welcoming a ton of discussions, debate, and dissent by the kid right organization accordingly, was supplanted as Juvenile misconduct law, Juvenile Justice Protection Act, 2000. In the wake of, passing by the Lok Sabha on 7 May 2015 welcoming a great deal of fights the Rajya Sabha passed the bill improving it on 22 Dec 2015. The most basic advance of the bill in the new Juvenile Justice bill 2015 including the treatment of Juveniles in certain conditions like how the grown-up are dealt with. The bill was passed in Rajya Sabha in 2015 on December 22. Child rights dissident additionally censured the bill and felt that in light of psychological warfare and other genuine offenses Juvenile Justice Act, 2000 is should have been altered or 2015 new demonstration ought to be improved. There is consistently debate between friendly government assistance and social control it shifts from one ward to another and offense to offense.

Juvenile courts are less formal than criminal court. Since, 1970 offenders who are not mature enough according to law have been pained a ton. The juvenile convicts are dealt with similarly as grown-up people. All around the world the UN has appreciated and urged countries to structure the framework in such a manner which keeps up the amicable advancement of puberty regardless of the hostile conduct of the denounced. The moto was to make a youngster cordial Justice with the goal that their future is protected and the guilty party gets an opportunity to improve as a human and directing assists them with understanding the demonstration. In spite of the fact that the progressions have been made by the Unified Countries these are less by and by. There are issues in the execution of laws locally just as worldwide crimes perpetrated by the minors are causing extra work and questions identified with continuing for Juvenile charged. There are a ton of issues which are expanding internationally with regards to Juvenile Justice. These courts are additionally called youngsters' court and they satisfy the part of the substitute guardians. Its originators believed that it is a treachery to rebuff a youngster for bad behavior and like to advise the kid, the court rather works casually very much like a parent or gatekeeper. The court may hear cases from delinquency to medicate anything which is disallowed by law. The guardians or gatekeepers of Juveniles normally accompany the Juvenile for aura which incorporates a fine the watchman for some unacceptable demonstration whenever required however it depends from one case to another. By and large, much of the time, the court orders treatment meetings for the youngster. The Juvenile court has another prison which is casual prison to chip away at youngsters and improve them assuming the part of substitute parent or gatekeeper. The methodology is somewhat not quite the same as grown-up court as Juveniles are confined instead of captured. Records from the Juvenile court are fixed reports as opposed to a grown-up which is under the Opportunity of data Act. This action is intended for minor charge with the goal that one mix-up doesn't follow them forever and they can have a protected future ahead. It might likewise be erased upon till the time they get in significant that is after they turn 18 in the event that they have gotten together to the imprint by appropriate conduct. The primary drive was finished by Chicago in 1899 where the Juvenile court was set up to save the children and improve them for a superior future. Juvenile courts were subsequently settled in Europe, Israel Iraq, Japan, and numerous pieces of the country.

CASE LAWS

[7]Roper v. Simmons (2005)

In the 2005 Roper v. Simmons case, the Supreme Court administered it illegal for an adolescent under 18 years of age at the hour of their wrongdoing to get a capital punishment sentence. This switched the 1989 Stanford v. Kentucky decision, which permitted youth who were at any rate 16 years or more established at the hour of their crimes to get capital punishment sentences.

Graham v. Florida (2010)

In 2010, the Supreme Court administered on account of Graham v. Florida that condemning an adolescent to existence without the chance of parole for a non-destructive wrongdoing is infringing upon the Eighth Amendment. The decision necessitates that states give adolescents a "significant freedom to acquire discharge dependent on exhibited development and recovery."

[8]In the United States, 37 states and the District of Columbia actually permit an adolescent to be condemned to life for carrying out a non-homicidal crime. A law passed by the Florida Senate in 2014 states that an adolescent indicted for homicide may just be condemned to life in jail after a compulsory hearing at which their age and conditions are thought of. The law additionally gives the chance to legal hearings to audit the sentences of guilty parties carrying out punishments for juvenile offenses.

In case of Deoki Nandan Dayma v. State of Uttar Pradesh the court held that section in the register of school mentioning the date of birth of understudy is allowable proof in deciding the time of adolescent or to show that whether the accused is juvenile or child.

Again, on account of Satbir Singh & others v. State of Haryana, Supreme Court again repeated that with the end goal of assurance if denounced is adolescent, the date of birth which is recorded in the school records shall be taken into considerations by Juvenile Justice Board.

In case of Krishna Bhagwan v. State of Bihar the court expressed that with the end goal of preliminary under Juvenile Justice Board, the significant date for the considering the time of adolescent ought to be on which the offense has been submitted.

But, later in the case of Arnit Das v. State of Bihar, the Supreme Court overruled its previous decisions and held that date to choose in case of immaturity ought to be the date on which the accused is brought before the competent authority.

CONCLUSION

The children who are not born criminal, are being changed because of insidious social climate and a non-hindrance law. So, an alternate equity method is given by Juvenile Justice Act. What's more, it very well may be effective from the root just if the observatory home is being controlled with farthest consideration and fondness, where the greatest piece of reformation of the child is done. However, is the greater part of the observatory home, it has been seen that, the vast majority of the adolescents are being drug dependent, living in squalid climate, no compelling instructive classes are led, which won't do the trick the purpose of juvenile justice. Beside a good law, a strong implementation is additionally the need of the hour.

According to my view when a child commits any crime their psychological state is distinctive that from an adult, so they should be taken appropriate consideration. Children have flexible mindset the Government and the Society ought to consistently deal with them with adoration and liberality and eliminate the criminal attitude and bring them back into ordinary life and furthermore furnish them with every one of the essential things that they need to grow up into a mindful individual of the general public.

In spite of the fact that each nation have Juvenile Justice Act and they had likewise changed it to make it current and more specific however they should appropriately practice it, the general public should likewise uphold the Government to reduce juvenile crimes. The juvenile crimes are expanding which should be engaged and the Government should likewise take care of the variables for which adolescent violations are expanding and attempt to resolve it.

There is a minor difference between juvenile justice and juvenile court. Adolescent equity rebuffs the blamed if the miscreant has done anything or chooses whether he ought to be in recovery for a specific length or whether he is at risk and sentences to certain discipline in prison if the offense is pretty much as greater as on account of a grown-up and is horrifying. The juvenile court fill in watchman or parent to improve the causes and it is an informal court.

The similarity above mentioned is both adolescent court and juvenile justice deal with minor youngsters who are accused for a few or the other crime and have broken the law and act informally to the offender and spotlight on rehabbing the child.


[1] Purti Vyas, History of Juvenile Justice System in India, An analytical study of Juvenile Justice System in India (June.10,2021, 9:00am), https://blog.ipleaders.in/juvenile-justice-system-india/

[2] Dibakar Banerjee, Juvenile Delinquency, Juvenile Justice (June.10, 2021, 10:00am), http://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-3089-juvenile-justice.html

[3] Ved Kumari, Section 2 of Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act, 2015.

[4] Purti Vyas, Juvenile Justice and Constitution of India, An analytical study of Juvenile Justice System in India (June.10, 2021, 10:00am), https://blog.ipleaders.in/juvenile-justice-system-india/

[5] Purti Vyas, what is the doctrine of Doli Incapax, An Analytical study of Juvenile Justice System in India (June.11, 2021, 9:30am), https://blog.ipleaders.in/juvenile-justice-system-india/

[6] Shireen, Juvenile Justice, Similarity and Difference between Juvenile Justice and Juvenile Courts (June.11, 2021, 10:00am), https://www.kartavyamtrust.org/publications/blogs/269-similarity-and-difference-between-juvenile-justice-and-juvenile-court

[7] Roper v. Simmons, 7/04 U.S Supreme Court (2015)

[8] Graham v. Florida, Three Supreme Court Case that have shaped Juvenile Justice (June.11,2021, 10:30am), http://archive.pov.org/15tolife/supreme-court-cases/