Every woman has the right to live with respect and dignity and being liberated from fear, intimidation, brutality, violence, and discrimination. Every woman has the privilege of well-being, including sexual and reproductive well-being. However, for a huge number of young girls and women around the world, their human rights are violated. Families and communities can change traditional practices and beliefs. Governments can set up strict laws, authorize them and deal with criminals. What's more, social orders can ensure the privilege of sexual and reproductive wellbeing of females, which incorporates management for family planning, maternal wellbeing. The endless list of violence against women includes domestic violence, rapes, and acid attacks among others. One of the most heinous crimes is Female Genital Mutilations. It is also called female circumcision and cutting. It is a practice of cutting, with blade and non-medical equipment, partial or total clitoris and labia minora, and narrowing the vaginal opening. This is identified by the World Health Organisation. It is an injury to female genital organs for non-medical reasons. There are no religions that stimulate FGM — it is a social practice that has become a custom. The practice has no medical advantages for young women.
FGM can cause serious bleeding and problems with peeing, contaminations, difficulties in giving birth, and an increased danger to the newborn. It is mostly performed on young girls between the age of 0-15.
FGM is practised in 31 nations in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It is generally predominant in Djibouti, Egypt, Guinea, and Mali, where 90% of the women between 15 to 49 have been exposed to FGM. The recent record of migration that exposed travellers has additionally conveyed the destructive practice with them to different nations, including Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, and many other countries of the world. Throughout the globe, more than 133 million girls and women have experienced some form of such mutilations.
The most often referred reason behind doing FGM are social acknowledgement, religion, misguided judgments about cleanliness, a method for protecting young women's virginity, making the woman "eligible", and upgrading male sexual satisfaction. In certain societies, FGM is viewed as a transitional experience into adulthood and thought of as a pre-imperative for marriage.
Even though there are no sterile benefits or medical advantages to FGM, communities accept that women's vaginas should be cut - and women who have not gone through FGM are viewed as undesirable, dirty, or dishonourable. It is regularly performed without consent, and experts overall think of it as a type of violence against women and a gross infringement of their human rights, and FGM practised on children is, likewise, seen as a type of child abuse. It is mainly carried out in countries like Africa and the Middle East. A report carried out by UNICEF states that around 29 countries in Africa practice such ‘custom’. It is estimated that more than 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone female genital mutilation
. In India, it is practised by some Islamic groups, mainly by the Dawoodi Bohra sect of the Shia community. This community calls the clitoris "Haram Ki Boti" before removing it. The informal word for FGM, assessed on girls at the age of 7, is khafz.
There are 4 sorts of FGM which is predominantly practised in African nations. The first is clitoridectomy, which is the point at which a little piece of a young girl’s clitoris is cut. Secondly, there is the subsequent strategy or extraction where a touch of labia alongside the clitoris is cut. The third or the most extreme of the relative multitude of structures is infibulations when pretty much all aspects of the vagina are circumcised. Furthermore, the fourth kind comprises narrowing of women's genitals. In various nations like Ethiopia, Somalia, and so on, they leave a little opening for pee and for the menstrual cycle to go through. It leads to constant pelvic infections, urinary infections, and birth complications for mothers and children. This procedure has zero health benefits and is considered unnecessary by the World Health Organisation.
FGM has numerous difficulties but the immediate ones are severe pain, shock, haemorrhage,
urine infection, ulceration of the genital region and injury to adjacent tissue, wound infection, fever, and septicemia. A haemorrhage can be severe enough to cause death. The lateral difficulties are anaemia, the formation of cysts and abscesses, keloid scar formation, damage to the urethra resulting in urinary incontinence, dyspareunia (during sexual intercourse), the sensitivity of the genital area, and are more prone to HIV transmission, as well as the negative psychological effects.
Does this act affect women and young girls psychologically? Absolutely YES, it affects mental health and may disrupt the social wellbeing of a child, connected to the loss of trust upon the guardians. In a more extended term, ladies may endure sensations of uneasiness and sadness. Sexual brokenness may add to conjugal arguments or may lead to separation.
These inhumane practices need to stop because such a violation of human rights is intolerable. 26 out of 29 African countries have laws against the FGM practice. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that around 59 countries have passed laws against FGM which is a good sign of protecting women’s dignity. Countries like the United Kingdom, Spain, Canada, Denmark, New Zealand, Sweden, etc. have banned such practices. It is illegal in Mauritania, the law only applies to girls under the age of 18. Moreover, in Kenya, it is illegal and punishable with imprisonment of up to 3 years or 200,000 shillings. West African countries like Mali, Liberia, Sierra have no legislation against FGM. Even in India, there is no law against FGM because the government denies the existence of the practice. Whereas, Sudan passed a new law against FGM and considered it a criminal practice and there is a punishment of up to 3 years for the same.
The world needs to awake and stand against such gruesome practices which do not have any health benefits or even religious requirements. Experts are not able to trace the proper sources of origin. Education plays an important role in society. It is important to educate young girls and make them self-sufficient to take their decision of well-being themselves. It is even more important to educate the parents and people who blindly follow such ‘customs’ about the harmful implications of their actions. However, the best method to decrease female genital mutilation is to spread Sex Education and carry an alteration to social practices with the assistance of specialists.