Religious Law & Crime in Developing/Developed Nations



Introduction

"In the name of the religion, many great and fine deeds have been performed. In the name of religion also, thousands and millions have been killed, and every possible crime has been committed." - Jawaharlal Nehru.


The expression "religion" is derived from the Latin term "religio," which, as indicated by Cicero, signifies the performance of fundamental rituals and customs for the sake of divine beings. The expression "law" denotes the norms and guidelines outlined by the enactment, which controls the conduct of the general public.

Strict laws are the assortments of standard practices, rules, and regulations being followed for centuries or are the moral set of official rules and the ethical standards that individuals of various religions have followed for hundreds of years. A portion of the instances of strict laws are Hinduism (derived from the Sanskrit word "Sindhu") is preached through Vedas, Smritis, Shrutis, Upanishads, Dharma, and customs. Sikhism believes that there is one god and everyone is equal in the eyes of god. One can carry on with a decent life provided that they are compassionate and have faith in three obligations:

  1. Nam Japna: It implies remembering god at each conceivable time.

  2. Kirt Karna: It implies carrying on with a decent and fair life, being honest to god.

  3. Vand Chhakna: It implies giving one's own earning in the cause.


Jainism follows the scriptures that have recorded the five pledges anuvratas (are the lesser or restricted promises of peacefulness, honesty, non-ownership, being modest and not selfish), three gunavratas (auxiliary promises), four siksavratas (promises which give directions to follow the way of discipline.)

Christianity follows the standards of Hebrew Scriptures, otherwise called scriptural law and ordinance law which was set up and is lectured in places of worship by a priest.

Religion is a way to diminish the crime percentage in society. It is accepted that nations with a state religion will have lower crime rates in general.


Part of Religion in Governing the Crime Rate

Religion assumes an exceptionally critical part in decreasing the crime percentage. As indicated by different sociological speculations, it is accepted that religion discourages wrongdoing. A review was conducted to comprehend the connection between wrongdoing and faith. As per Freeman's review, it was discovered that the teens surrounded by criminal individuals might turn out to be good people. In Freeman's 1986 report, it was discovered that those youngsters who vigorously attend chapel gatherings show a positive methodology towards life and are less inclined to commit crimes. Statistically, around 90% of the researchers claim that as soon there is an increment in religious acceptance, the crime percentage consequently begins diminishing.


Religion and Crime

As per the examinations which occurred between the years 1944 till 2010, it came out that somewhere around 109 investigations have uncovered that religion has a positive effect in diminishing the crime percentage. Practically 89% of the examinations have discovered that faith and wrongdoing are connected to lessening misconduct.


Misconduct Rates by Region:

  • United States of America (USA)

As per an overview, in 2017, crimes related to religion increased by 22% and by 35% in 2016.

As per Hill, crimes against Jews was 58.1% which depended on the separation based on religion and further increased by 4% since 2016. If we talk about the offences against Muslims in the USA, roughly 24.8% were carried out because of strict segregation in 2016. However, in 2017, a decrease was found in crimes, which remained at 18.7%. Nevertheless, the non-Islamic crimes increased, and then again, transgressions against hostile Arab individuals multiplied. From the above report, we can say that the USA is a nation where assortments of the area can be seen. Those religions in the class of minority face segregation and are taken advantage of by the majority. In the year 2018, an ascent in the instances of hostility towards Jews was seen.

  • India

As indicated by data in Prison Statistics India, 2014, delivered by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), the minority religion individuals undertrials were more likely to be kept in detainment facilities. There are many Sikhs, around 840 for each million, 640 Christians, 477 Muslims, and 305 were Hindus under trial. Around 46% of the Christians under trial are from Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, and Orissa. These are the states where their conditions are deplorable. A more significant part of the detainees in the correctional facilities are individuals from the Dalit, Other Backward Classes (OBC), and Muslims. Surprisingly, Uttar Pradesh has most of the number of inhabitants in Dalits and Muslims living, and the state additionally has most of the detainees who are Muslims and Dalits. As indicated by a study, the most incited networks in India are the Muslims, Dalits, and Adivasis. In 2013, in India, 4.2 lakhs individuals were in jail, out of which 20% were Muslims. However, their whole populace in India is 13%, as per a review led in 2001. As indicated by the 2011 overview, the Dalit populace in India is 17%, while the number of inhabitants in Adivasis is 11% in prisons, and in genuine their general populace is 8% in India.


It should be noticed is that these individuals perpetrated more wrongdoings because they are financially and socially backwards and oppressed and cannot enlist advocates for battling their cases, and they may not have cash for their bail. Numerous times they are even accused in false cases. In 2016, an advisory group headed by the then Chief Justice of India, a report came out on the states of Muslims in India—based on little evidence and their lack of awareness, they are often kept imprisoned for a longer time. Agreeing to basic freedom extremist Colin Gonsalves, they have a shortage of assets, i.e., food, cash, and even schooling, making it hard to get legitimate assistance. A detainee's factual report distributed by National Crime Records Bureau shows that since 1995, the situation and conditions of Muslims and Adivasis in India have not changed much even after 15 years of transformations and laws.


Solutions for Preventing Religious Crimes:

  • Discussions instead of violence

  • Denouncing suspicious activity by the police

  • Awareness among children and even adults to increase respect for others religion

  • Not engaging in violent and illegal behaviour by buying weapons for "protection" from a particular religion

  • Communicating instead of hurried conclusions and stereotyping

  • Attending events and festivals to better understand and respect other religions


Conclusion

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Indian constitution say that every individual has the right to practice, profess and propagate one's religion, yet people have been stopped, embarrassed, separated, tormented, and even killed.


Such hatred for other religions starts from a young age and majorly from brainwashing. Children learn from observing the hostility in their society, and if the adults are aware and educated, it will create a better compassionate environment for growing and living together peacefully.


India is a very diverse and yet secular country. It is more significant for individuals to understand the principal issues, such as poverty, backwardness, and ignorance, regardless of varying religions. Otherwise, it will create vast differences between the diverse individuals of faith, which will ruin India's solidarity and integrity, making it a more fragile country in all circles. Each nation has a government to adapt to the differences and contentions that arise among its people. They must take steps and implement policies, where needed, to create a holistic state and further strengthen their country against international interferences or hostilities.


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